Aragen Bioscience offers a diverse range of preclinical oncology models and services with client-specific customized study design. These include human xenograft tumor models as well as the more complex sub-renal capsule, patient-derived xenograft (PDX), and syngeneic tumor models. We monitor PK/PD correlations using plasma following test article administration, tumor response, changes in tumor volume and weight, as well as studying genomic, proteomic and metabolomic biomarkers.

Xenograft models are extensively used in IND-enabling studies for evaluation of NCEs and NBEs as potential anticancer agents. Our scientists have developed and validated several xenograft models in Ncr Nu/Nu, NOD-SCID and SCID-Beige mice. We will customize and utilize any human cell line of your interest to conduct in vivo proof-of concept studies. Syngeneic models are used to test anticancer agents in an immunocompetent system, although it may not entirely reflect the human immune competency. With intact immune system, syngeneic models are pertinent for evaluating immunologically based targeted therapies alone or in combination.

Aragen Bioscience’s Discovery Biology research services offer specialized, customized rodent models for preclinical testing of your investigative immunomodulatory anti-cancer therapeutics. Several animal models are available to screen potential CART-cell therapeutics as part of the IND-enabling process.

Cell Lines Validated for Tumorigenicity Studies- Xenograft Models

Human Cell lines @ Aragen Bioscience (USA/India)
S.No Cell line Origin of Tumor Species USA IND
1 A431 Epidermoid Carcinoma Human Y Y
2 Hep G2.2.15 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Human Y
3 A673 Rhabdomyosarcoma (Ewing tumor) Human Y
4 KASUMI-1 Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Human Y Y
5 MV4-11 Beta Myelomonocytic Leukemia Human Y
6 NALM-6 B Cell Leukemia Human Y
7 SUDHL-10 B Cell Leukemia Human Y
8 MDA-MB-468 Breast cancer Human Y
9 MDA-MB-231 Breast Human Y Y
10 MCF-7 Breast cancer Human Y
11 SK-Br-3 Breast cancer Human Y
12 Raji Burkitt’s Lymphoma Human Y
13 FaDu Cervical Carcinoma Human Y
14 HT-29 Colon Adenocarcinoma Human Y
15 HCT-116 Colon Adenocarcinoma Human Y
16 Colo 205 Colon Adenocarcinoma Human Y
17 SW480 Colon Adenocarcinoma Human Y
18 KM-12 Colon Human Y
19 U87-MG Glioblastoma Human Y
21 Hep 3B Hepatocellular Carcinoma Human Y
22 PLC/PRF/5 Hepatoma Human Y
23 A549 NSCLC Human Y
24 NCI-H460 Large cell lung carcinoma Human Y
25 NCI-H226 Lung (NSCLC) Human Y
26 H1299 Lung (NSCLC) Human Y
27 NCI-H358 Lung (NSCLC) Human Y
28 NCI-H1944 Lung (NSCLC) Human Y
29 NCI-H1573 Lung Adenocarcinoma Human Y
30 Calu-6 Lung anaplastic carcinoma Human Y
31 NCI-H292 Mucoepidermoid pulmonary carcinoma Human Y
32 A427 Lung carcinoma Human Y
33 A375 Melanoma Human Y
34 KG-1 Multiple Myeloma Human Y
35 NCI-H929 Multiple Myeloma Human Y
36 U266 Multiple Myeloma Human Y
37 MM1.S Multiple Myeloma Human Y
38 RPMI8226 Multiple Myeloma Human Y
39 WSU-DLCL-2* non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Human Y
40 IGROV-1* Ovarian cancer Human Y Y
41 SK-OV-3 Ovarian Human Y
42 A2780 Ovarian Human
43 OVCAR-3 Ovarian adenocarcinoma Human Y Y
44 OV90 Ovarian cancer Human Y
45 PANC-01 Pancreatic Cancer Human Y
46 AsPC-1 Pancreatic Cancer Human Y
47 BxPC3 Pancreatic Cancer Human Y
48 PANC.10.05 Pancreatic Cancer Human Y
49 MIA-PACA Pancreatic Cancer Human Y
50 22rv.1 Prostate Cancer Human Y
51 LNCaP Prostate Cancer Human Y
52 DU-145 Prostate Cancer Human Y
53 PC-3 Prostate Cancer Human Y Y
54 22rv.1 Prostate Cancer Human Y
55 LNCaP Prostate Cancer Human Y
56 786-O Renal Carcinoma Human Y
57 A498 Renal Carcinoma Human Y Y
58 Caki-1 Renal Cell Carcinoma Human Y


Cell Lines Validated for Tumorigenicity Studies- Xenograft Models

Animal Cell lines @ Aragen Bioscience (USA/India)
S.No Murine Cell Line Origin of Tumor Species USA IND
1 4T1 Breast mouse Y
2 MC-38 Colon mouse Y
3 CT-26 Colon mouse Y
4 B16-F10 Melanoma mouse Y
5 B16-F1 Melanoma mouse Y
6 Hepa1-6 Liver mouse Y
7 LL/2 Lung mouse Y
8 A20 lymphoma mouse Y
9 EL4 Thymoma Human Y
10 E.G7 Ova-expressed Thymoma mouse Y
11 C6VL  T cell-Lymphoma mouse Y
12 H1210 Leukemia mouse Y
13 Renca Kidney mouse Y
14 Ba/F3 a murine interleukin-3 dependent pro-B cell line mouse Y
15 D17 Osteosarcoma Canine Y


Tagged cell lines validated for Tumorigenicity in Syngeneic models

Special Cell lines @ Aragen Bioscience (USA/India)
S.No Murine Cell Line Origin of Tumor Species USA IND
1 4T1-FLuc Breast Human Y
2 MC-38-FLuc Colon Human Y
3 CT-26-FLuc Colon Human Y


Tagged cell lines validated for Tumorigenicity in Xenograft models

Special Cell lines @ Aragen Bioscience (USA/India)
S.No Murine Cell Line Origin of Tumor Species USA IND
1 A549-FLuc-GFP Lung (NSCLC) Human Y
2 BxPC3-FLuc-GFP Pancreatic cancer Human Y
3 Mia Paca-2-Rluc Pancreatic cancer Human Y
4 Caki-1-FLuc Renal Cell Carcinoma(RCC) Human Y
5 786-O-FLuc Renal Cell Carcinoma(RCC) Human Y
6 MeWo-Rluc Melanoma Human Y
7 MDA-MB-231-FLuc Breast Human Y
8 MCF-7 FLuc Breast Human Y
9 SKOV-3-FLuc Ovarian cancer Human Y
10 MKN-1-FLuc Gastric cancer Human Y
11 A673-FLuc Muscle Ewing’s sarcoma Human Y
12 Raji-FLuc-GFP Burkitt’s lymphoma Human Y


Human Tumor Xenograft (Click on the links to read case studies)

Tissue Type Human Cell Line
Leukemia lymphoma Daudi, MV4.11
Burkitt’s lymphoma Raji, Raji-Luc-GFP
Acute myeloid leukemia Kasumi-1
B cell leukemia NALM6, SUDHL-10
Multiple myeloma KG-1, NCI-H929, U266, MM.1s, RPMI-8226
Colon adenocarcinoma HT-29, HCT-116, HCT-116 Luc-GFP, Colo 205, SW480
Lung (NSCLC) A549, NCI-H226, NCI-H1299, NCI-H358, NCI-H1944, A549-Luc-GFP
Lung anaplastic carcinoma Calu-6
Lung adenocarcinoma NCI-H1573, NCI-H292, NC-H460
Renal cell carcinoma Caki-1, 786-O
Hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2, Hep 3B
Cervical carcinoma FaDu
Pancreatic cancer BxPC-3, BxPC-3-Luc-GFP, Mia Paca-2-Luc
Ovarian cancer SKOV-3, SKOV-3-Luc, OVCAR-3
Prostate cancer LNCaP, LNCaP-Luc, 22rv.1
Breast cancer MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-231-Luc, MCF-7, MCF-7 Luc, BT-474
Glioblastoma LN-229
Melanoma A459


Validated Syngeneic Tumor Models (Click on the links to read case studies)

Tumor Origin Murine Cell Line
Breast 4T1, 4T1-Luc, EMT-6
Colon MC-38 , CT-26
Melanoma B16-F10, B6-F1
Liver Hepa1-6
Lung LL/2
Lymphoma A20
Thymoma EL4, E. G7
Leukemia H1210
Kidney Renca


Immuno- Oncology (IO) and CART Cell Therapeutics Evaluation Capabilities

Due to extensive immuno-oncology (IO) research, more effective and targeted treatment strategies for cancer have evolved in recent years. The approval and use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-Cell therapeutics in difficult-to-treat cancers has brought hope to millions of patients and oncologists globally. In particular, the success of CART-cell therapy in hematologic malignancies renewed efforts to use this technology against solid tumors as well. However, this strategy has had several challenges, including targeted delivery, penetration of therapeutics to tumor cells, immunogenicity, short- and long-term toxicity and safety, and efficacy of CART-cells in humans. To address the challenges above, several animal models have been utilized to screen potential CART-cell therapeutics as part of the IND-enabling process.

In addition, bispecific antibodies have emerged as a new class of therapeutic agents designed to simultaneously bind to patient’s T cells and to tumor cells, inducing T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity of tumor cells. Humanized models with human peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) in combination with a variety of xenograft models, are the most frequently used in-vivo platform for short-term screening of novel compounds. Full hematopoietic stem cell (CD34+) reconstituted models combined with genetically modified immunodeficient strains are utilized for long term screening of T-cell modulators, natural killer (NK) cell modulators, and other agents that induce antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), as well as various categories of immune checkpoint inhibitors and agonists.

Aragen Bioscience is a leading R&D and manufacturing solutions provider for the life sciences industries worldwide offering end-to-end integrated and standalone solutions to advance small and large molecule programs from concept to commercialization. In vivo pharmacology services at Aragen Bioscience offer specialized, customized, comprehensive portfolio of in vivo services for testing of your investigative immune-oncology cell therapeutics.

Why Aragen Bioscience?

A team of experienced scientists and skilled in vivo research associates can support pre-clinical research from study design through execution as follows:

  • Ensuring the successful intravenous adoptive transfer of CART-cells or human PBMCs into a mouse.
  • Experience in performing in vivo CART therapeutic evaluations of both liquid and solid tumors.
    Figure 1. Representative study design for evaluating CART therapeutics

  • Experience in using cryopreserved CART cells or human PBMCs with careful thawing and resuspension prior to the adoptive transfer (Harbani K. Malik-Chaudhry 2021).
  • Experience in performing a wide range of cell line derived xenograft in humanized mouse models with successful identification of efficacy to support preparing IND program.
  • Utilization of our bioluminescent imaging system to monitor tumor progressions in living animals.
    Figure 2. Ventral view images of mice after inoculation (6, 11 and 18 days) of Raji-Fluc cells both in non-humanized and humanized models.

    Top panel: raji-Luc disseminated, middle panel: raji-Luc in humanized model, and the bottom panel: raji-Luc treated with anticancer drug in the humanized model. The images were taken on days 6,8 and 11 post tumor cells implantation.

  • Ex vivo supports including detection of tumor-specific or associated antigens on the surface of cancer cells by FACS, pre-screening of the PBMCs both in vitro or in vivo to reduce donor variability and to ensure consistency replicate studies by using the same donors, monitoring of CART cells in the host, and screening of human PBMCs engraftment.
    Figure 3. Engraftment of human PBMCs

    Bar graphs of CD45+ engraftment after hPBMC adoptive transfer. The leukocyte marker CD45+ and T-cell markers CD4+ and CD8+ measured from peripheral blood on 14, 18 and 21 days.

Our research facilities are in Morgan Hill, CA and we can accommodate same-day or second-day domestic shipping of your temperature-sensitive therapeutics and biological samples.

Validated IO Models

Effect of Cabozantinib (p.o.) shown in Syngeneic Model: Female Balb/C Mice were injected with RENCA cells (mouse melanoma cell line) in the flank region. Treatment with Cabozantinib was injected on Day (post implant). A significant reduction in tumor volume and increased tumor growth inhibition was observed as compared with control grp.

Additional Models

  • Lung metastasis model
  • Orthotopic models of breast, kidney
  • Subrenal capsule assay
  • Vaccine model

Other Oncology Support

  • In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging
  • 70+ cancer cell lines stored in-house to validate new models
  • Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of various test materials in tumour bearing mice
  • Target engagement of compound in tumour tissue and PK/PD correlation
  • MTD studies in immunocompromised mice

Aragen Bioscience is a leading integrated discovery, development and manufacturing solutions provider for the global life sciences industry. Our Discovery Biology Services include In vitro and In vivo screening of new immunotherapies, including engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)T-Cells (client provided) using translational animal models to support efficacy proof of concept studies in xenograft and syngeneic tumor models.

Typical readouts are, but not limited to:

  • Immunophenotyping with multi-color FACS
  • Cytokine panels
  • ELISpot assays
  • Multi gene analysis
  • Histology/ Immunohistochemistry
  • Protein/ peptide analytics

These services cater to a range of therapeutic areas including immuno-oncology research.

In recent years, immuno-oncology research has made rapid progress, thanks to new therapeutic options such as CART-Cell. While the CART therapy is increasingly being used for treatment of human hematologic malignancies, there are several challenges including targeted delivery, immunogenicity and efficacy in solid tumors.

To address these challenges and help you expedite your IO research projects to market, we have developed various mouse models to screen potential CART-cell therapeutics to support IND-enabling process.

The Aragen Bioscience Advantage :

  • Experienced and skilled team of in vivo research scientists to support pre-clinical research from study design through execution
  • Experience in intravenous transfer of CART-cells (or human PBMCs) into a mouse and in vivo ex vivo CART therapeutic evaluations for liquid and solid tumors
  • Experience in cell line derived xenograft- in humanized mouse models and non-invasive monitoring of tumor progressions in animals
  • Detection of tumor-specific antigens by FACS, in vitro or in vivo pre-screening of the PBMCs and screening of human PBMCs
  • Same/next day shipment of biological samples from our research facility at Morgan Hill, CA